What are the 7 types of pesticides?
- Insecticides – insects.
- Herbicides – plants.
- Rodenticides – rodents (rats & mice)
- Bactericides – bacteria.
- Fungicides – fungi.
- Larvicides – larvae.
What are the harmful effects of pesticides in general?
Pesticides have a major effect on biological diversity, alongside habitat loss and climate change. They can have short-term toxic effects on directly exposed organisms, and long-term effects can result from changes to habitats and the food chain.
Pesticides can contaminate soil, water, turf, and other vegetation. In addition to killing insects or weeds, pesticides can be toxic to a host of other organisms including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and non-target plants.
What are the effects of pesticides on human health?
Pesticides can cause short-term adverse health effects, called acute effects, as well as chronic adverse effects that can occur months or years after exposure.
Acute (Immediate) Health Effects
Immediate health effects from pesticide exposure includes irritation of the nose, throat, and skin causing burning, stinging and itching as well as rashes and blisters. Nausea, dizziness and diarrhea are also common. People with asthma may have very severe reactions to some pesticides, particularly pyrethrin/pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides.
Chronic (Long-term) Health Effects
Chronic health effects include cancer and other tumors; brain and nervous system damage; birth defects; infertility and other reproductive problems; and damage to the liver, kidneys, lungs and other body organs. Chronic effects may not appear for weeks, months or even years after exposure, making it difficult to link health impacts to pesticides.
How do pesticides affect climate change?
Pesticides impact climate change throughout their manufacture, transport and application. When pesticides are made, three main greenhouse gases are emitted: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.
Besides the emission of greenhouse gases, pesticides kill organisms and therefore disrupt the balance of the ecosystems and biodiversity of the planet. Because our ecosystem is important to capture carbon dioxide, using pesticides can enhance global warming and therefore climate change. For example, pesticides are a threat to the survival of bees. Without bees, many plants and fruit will not exist and because plants capture carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and water out of the soil and make glucose and oxygen, it is affecting and enhancing climate change. Disrupting the valance of nature by using pesticides means that the regulation of greenhouse gases gets disrupted as well.
EU Pesticides risk indicators
The EU has defined two main risk indicators related to the use of pestides:
- Harmonised Risk Indicator 1 (HRI 1), measuring the use and risk of pesticides. Harmonised Risk Indicator 1 is calculated by multiplying the quantities of active substances placed on the market in plant protection products by a weighting factor. Active substances are grouped into four categories:
- Harmonised Risk Indicator 2 (HRI 2), which is based on the number of emergency authorisations. Harmonised Risk Indicator 2 is calculated by multiplying the number of emergency authorisations granted by Member States under Article 53 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 by a weighting factor.
- CPR (Californians for Pesticides Reform). CPR is a statewide coalition of more than 190 organizations, founded in 1996 to fundamentally shift the way pesticides are used in California.
- Directive 2009/128/EC EU Sustainable use pesticides directive 2009/128/EC, aims to achieve a sustainable use of pesticides in the EU by reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use.